In this case, the father of a child’s assumpsit on the father of another child in order to stop the latter child from assaulting the former. [xxix]Bowstead and Reynolds on Agency (16th ed, 1996) para 1-001. There were other 16th and 17th century cases where a third party was denied an action on the grounds that the promisee was the only person entitled to bring the action[xiii]. [lvii] Further, the legislation permits the enforcement of all terms of the contract against the third party which are “in the terms of the contract…imposed on the [third party] for the benefit of the [promisor]”. 1872, allows the ‘ Consideration ‘ for an agreement to proceed from a third-party. I’m always excited about it and never miss a chance to explore new places and be adventurous. However, in the Report, the Commission’s reasoning ran along the following lines: The report, thus, signalled a decisive break from the orthodoxy of the privity doctrine which, in the earlier part of the century, was identified by Viscount Haldane LC as one of the fundamental principles of English contract law[ciii]. [lxvi] The Report, at para 3.1, considered the law of France, Germany, South Africa, Denmark, [lxxv] THE LAW REFORM COMMISSION OF HONG KONG, REPORT,PRIVITY OF CONTRACT, September 2005. The defendant, the promisor agreed to the agreement and also executed an iqraranama in favour of the plaintiff which shows that the term of the gift deed that the consideration will move from the third person was at the desire of the promisor. [xlvi]Walters v Monarch Insurance Co (1856) 5 E & B 870; Hepburn v A Tomlinson (Hauliers) Ltd [19660 AC 451; Petrofina (UK) Ltd v. Magnaload Ltd.  QB 127; Pan Atlantic Insurance Co Ltd v. Pine Top Insurance Co Ltd  2 Lloyd’s Rep. 505; National Oilwell (UK) Ltd. V. Dac Offshore Ltd  2 Lloyd’s Rep. 582. Hence, at issue was whether the scope of the indemnity extended to the plaintiff. The debates are not just due to the lack of clarity in the statutes or dissenting judicial pronouncements but much of these owe to the academic and judicial debates linked with the ground roots of this doctrine. In this case A borrowed ₹40,000 by executing a mortgage of her zamindari in favour of B. Another important decision is that of Hadvesv. We also can say that only a person who has provided consideration can enforce a promise. A stranger to a consideration cannot move the court to enforce the contract. The two principles of privity and consideration have become tangled but are still distinct. Although one can normally say that the principal is the real party to the contract concluded by his agent, agency can also be viewed as an exception to the privity doctrine as in that the principal, on the basis of a contract with a third party, that contract being concluded by his agent, is able to sue (and be sued) on it. Thus insurance brokers are both agents of the insured and of the insurer.[xxx]. The Supreme Court has, by its decision in M.C. Privity of contract & third party beneficiary in a contract. [civ], [iii] 123 ER 762: I B&S 23: 30 LJ QB 218: 4 LT 468: 124 RR 610, [iv]Corny and Curtis v. Collidon; 1674 (1) Freem. [lxi]Queensland Property Law Act 1974, ss 55(2). A.) This instruction was given in reliance on a representation made by the defendants to the plaintiffs that the paint would last seven years. In the Fraser River case, a third party beneficiary sought to rely on a contractual provision so as to defend against an action brought by one of the contractual parties (the insurer). As such, the respondents are not complete strangers to the limitation of liability clause. “Though originally there was no privity of contract between B and C, B having subsequently acknowledged his liability, C was entitled to sue him for recovery of the amount.”. Subsequently she sold her property to C for ₹44,000 and allowed C, the purchaser, to retain ₹400,000 of the price in order to redeem the mortgage if he thought fit. Although in the former two cases, the reason why Cfailed was because he was a stranger to the consideration, Price v Easton contains seeds of moremodern doctrine: whereas Denman CJ said that no consideration for the promise moved fromC to A, Littledale J said that there was no privity between C and A. Since the decision of the New York Court of Appeals in Lawrence v Fox,[lxix] it has become generally accepted that a third party is able to enforce a contractual obligation made for his benefit. [lxii] On acceptance, the beneficiary is bound to perform any acts that may be required of him by the terms of the promise. Although the principle of vicarious immunity was subsequently generally accepted by the lower courts, it did not survive the decision of the House of Lords (Lord Denning dissenting) in Midland Silicones Ltd v Scruttons Ltd.[xxxvii]the defendant stevedores, engaged by the carrier, negligently damaged a drum containing chemicals. Now third parties can claim compensation provided he is an intended beneficiary under the contract, and infringement is proved. Although McNiece was within the category covered it was not directly in contract with Trident. Assignment may therefore deprive promisors of their chosen contracting party, although safeguards are imposed to protect promisors. It is only in a very wide sense, therefore, that standard examples of the tort of negligence constitute exceptions to the third party rule. Despite several attempts by Denning LJ to allow rights of suit by third party beneficiaries,[xxi] the House of Lords reaffirmed the general rule in Midland Silicones Ltd v Scruttons Ltd[xxii] Viscount Simonds said: “[H]eterodoxy, or, as some might say, heresy, is not the more attractive because it is dignified by the name of reform. “The doctrine of privity means that a contract cannot, as a general rule, confer rights or impose obligations arising under it on any person except the parties to it.”[ii]. [lii]Dundee Harbour Trustees v. Nicol1915 SC (HL) 7, 13 per Lord Dunedin. Although the English doctrine of privity of consideration is not applicable in India, the doctrine of Privity of Contract generally is. A person was a “creditor beneficiary” if performance of the promise would satisfy an actual or asserted duty of the promisee to him. The terms being that a stipulated annuity of ₹ 653 should be paid every year to the plaintiff, sister of the old lady. Being in my initial years of college, all the subjects at present like Law of Contracts attract me but I always keep reading Constitutional Law. -provided that the contracting parties do not also intend that the third party beneficiary should not have the right to enforce the contract. It must be therefore taken as well-settled that except in the case of a beneficiary under a trust or in the case of a family arrangement, no right may be enforced by a person who is not a party to the contract…It is a settled law that a person not a party to a contract cannot enforce the terms of the contract.”. Purchases entered into no contract with Trident would sue a of B the current operation of most... 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